Posts Tagged ‘Disparities’

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS IN THE PROCESS OF CONVERGENCE OF THE GREEK REGIONS

Panagiotis KOUDOUMAKIS

Dr. Civil Engineer, Democritus University of Thrace (DUTh), Department of Civil Engineering, Greece

pkoudoum@civil.duth.gr

George BOTZORIS

Assistant Professor, Democritus University of Thrace (DUTh), Department of Civil Engineering, Greece

gbotzori@civil.duth.gr

Angelos PROTOPAPAS

Professor, Democritus University of Thrace (DUTh), Department of Civil Engineering, Greece

aproto@civil.duth.gr

Vassilios PROFILLIDIS

Professor, Democritus University of Thrace (DUTh), Department of Civil Engineering, Greece

vprofill@civil.duth.gr

Abstract

In this paper, the impact of the economic crisis on the convergence of the Greek region’s economy to the European average is examined. In particular, it is being considered the condition of absolute β-convergence using the econometric model of Barro and Sala-i-Martin. The dependent variable was represented by the average value of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS). Additionally the hypothesis of the σ-convergence of the regions of the EU and Greece is being considered, based on the coefficient of variation weighted by population. The results of both absolute β-convergence and σ-convergence suggest a declining trend of convergence and persistence of inequalities for the regions of the EU, following the outbreak of 2008 economic crisis. Regarding the regions of Greece, the results indicate, on the one hand, their deviation from the average income of the regions of the EU and, on the other, a significant increase in the regional disparities in the period 2000-2016.

Keywords: Convergence, Disparities, Economic Crisis, Regions

JEL classification: O41, R11, R12
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REGIONAL EMPLOYMENT IN PORTUGAL: DIFFERENCES AND CYCLICAL SYNCHRONISATION

Leonida CORREIA

Assistant Professor Department of Economy, Sociology and Management (DESG), Centre for Transdisciplinary Development Studies (CETRAD), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD) Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal. Tel: +351 259 350699;

lcorreia@utad.pt

Marina ALVES

Master’s degree in Economic and Management Sciences in UTAD

alves2_marina@hotmail.com

Abstract

This paper analyses the specificities of employment in Portuguese regions at a disaggregated level of NUTS III, comparing the differences of several indicators between the last two censuses. It also examines the synchronisation of regional employment cycles over the 2000-2014 period, using the information provided for the new nomenclature of NUTS. The comparison of several employment’s characteristics (total and by sex, age group, sector of activity and main occupation) across the 7 regions and 25 sub-regions allowed us to conclude that Portugal is marked by substantial regional specificities. The analysis of the evolution of employment ‘cycles highlight the substantial reduction in the employment rate since the beginning of the 2000s, with particular intensity in the period of the recent crisis, and considerable differences across regions and at the intraregional level. The results from the synchronisation reveal a great heterogeneity in the degree of correlation between the sub-national cycles and the national cycle. Additionally, they suggest that, in general, the cyclical pattern of the sub-regions is more closely related to the regions that they belong to than that of the Portuguese cycle. The paper concludes that this heterogeneity should be addressed in the context of policy making, by means to construct appropriate responses to counteract the regional differences.

Keywords: employment, disparities, cycles, Portuguese regions

JEL classification: E32, J21, R11, R12

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THE ROLE OF INNOVATION IN COMPETITIVENESS AND CONVERGENCE PROCESS: A BENCHMARKING STUDY FOR EUROPEAN REGIONS

George M. Korres

Visiting Fellow, University of Newcastle, Centre of Urban and Regional Development Studies, CURDS, Newcastle, United Kingdom, George.Korres@ncl.ac.uk and Associate Professor at the University of Aegean, Department of Geography, Email: gkorres@hol.gr and gkorres@geo.aegean.gr

and

Aikaterini Kokkinou

Department of Economics, University of Glasgow, Adam Smith Building, G12 8RT, Glasgow, United Kingdom, E-mail: a.kokkinou.1@research.gla.ac.uk

Abstract:

Globalization and competition has shifted the comparative advantage of economies towards the factor of knowledge and innovation, where productivity based on the endogenous development capabilities plays a rather important role, as far as growth and competitiveness enhancement are concerned. In order to promote innovation activities and technological opportunities, productivity enhancement seems to have significant effects on the long run performance of the economy. Within this framework, the enhancement and convergence of growth and productivity are a major topic in the economic and social policy agenda of E.U. members, since governments seek to concentrate on problems not only related to low employment growth, high unemployment, fiscal deficits and public debt, but also to national disparities and convergence attainment. This paper aims to review the main topics related to innovation activities, as well as competitiveness and economic convergence attainment. It also attempts to analyze, using a benchmarking approach, the effects of innovation activities, in order to clarify the related implications on regional convergence process.

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