Posts Tagged ‘gender’

IS THERE A LONG RUN NEXUS AMONG MENTAL DISORDER AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS? : EXPERIENCES FROM AN ECONOMETRIC STUDY ACROSS 40 COUNTRIES

Ramesh CHANDRA DAS

Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Vidyasagar University, Midnapur 721102, West Bengal, India

ramesh051073@gmail.com

(Corresponding author)

Sovik MUKHERJEE

Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Faculty of Commerce and Management Studies, St. Xavier’s University, Kolkata, India

sovik1992@gmail.com

Abstract

Are there evidences of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and socio-economic deprivation? To explore it, we try to relate all sorts of mental disorders with the per-capita GDP (PCGDP), the level of per-capita CO2 emissions as a measure of pollution (PCCO), usage of Internet (IU) as a measure of social behaviour, and Globalization Index (GI), for all the major countries in the world. Applying Vector Autoregression (VAR) model the results reveal that most of the high income countries in the selection have produced the result that mental disorder is cointegrated to the four socio economic indicators. The short run causality tests unambiguously backs up the sustainability of the long run cointegration relations derived for countries like Argentina, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, and UAE. Hence, mental disorder is not a problem to the lower income countries but to the high income countries as well.

Keywords: Mental health, poverty gap, CO2 emissions, terrorism, internet, gender, globalization

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EXPLORING DETERMINANTS AND RELATIONS BETWEEN NATURE-BASED (“ECO”-)TOURISM AND AGRO-TOURISM

Nikolaos HASANAGAS

University Forest Administration, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

n.hasanagas@gmail.com

Maria POUSINI

Union of Rural Associations of Almopia, Greece

mpousini25@yahoo.com

Maria GOULA

Environmental Education Centre of Makrinitsa, Magnisia, Greece

airamgl@yahoo.gr

Abstract

This research analyzes the initial intentions and the final leisure options of visitors travelling to the rural area of Polikarpi, Greece, and the relation between nature-based and agro-tourism. 161 standardized questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used. Important determinants of the intention, final behavior and their relation proved to be the spatial origin and the gender. Non-local and female visitors tend to invest more time enjoying local products while local and male visitors tend to spend more time enjoying nature. Local male visitors seem to combine nature-based with agro-tourism, achieving thereby a multifaceted orientation. Female visitors appear to separate the nature-based from the agro-touristic interests, setting more distinct priorities. The final leisure options of non-local female visitors seem to be driven by their initial intention to enjoy products while the final leisure options of local female visitors seem to be driven by the initial intention to enjoy the nature. Education level, status, income and age proved to be only slightly relevant or irrelevant. Hypotheses that non-local visitors are more stimulated by the “landscape” than the local ones or that the susceptibility to engage with nature- relatede values (“romanticism”) depends on gender proved to be disputable.

Keywords: forest policy, rural development, landscape, local products, gender, spatial origin

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